A solar keratosis is a skin condition that is evidenced by rough or crusty, scaly bumps or patches on the surface of your skin. They usually show up on the parts of your skin that are most often exposed to the sun. These are places like your neck, forearms, the back of your hands, face, scalp, ears and lips. Continue reading
Leukemia is one of several different forms of cancer that affects your bone marrow and/or blood. Leukemia is evidenced by an abnormal build up of blood cells that are usually white blood cells (leukocytes).
The term “leukemia” can be used in reference to a broad group of diseases. Leukemia is divided into categories and groups both clinically and pathologically. The first division is between the acute and chronic types of leukemia. The type of blood cell that is affected by leukemia is the next division. Continue reading
If one of your tissues or organs is not getting any oxygen, the condition is called anoxia. Even though your tissue or organ is receiving a sufficient amount of blood flow, anoxia may still occur.
If one of your organs or tissues has a decrease in the amount of oxygen that is getting to it, the condition is known as hypoxia. Just like with anoxia, even though your organ or tissue is getting an adequate amount of blood flow, hypoxia may still take place. Continue reading
Vasculitis is much more than one single disease. Vasculitis is a broad medical term for a group of uncommon diseases that are marked by inflammation of your blood vessels. Vasculitis is also characterized by damage to and inflammation in the walls of various blood vessels in your body. Morbus Behcet is a form of vasculitis that is evidenced by ulceration and other legions. Continue reading
Congenital platelet function defects is a genetic (inherited) bleeding disorder. It is a bleeding disorder that involves problems with your platelets. Platelets are tiny cells that circulate in your blood. Their main job is to have a part in the process of the clotting of your blood. Continue reading
Raynaud’s phenomenon is a condition that involves your arteries. The blood vessels that take blood from your heart to the other parts of your body are your arteries.
Raynaud’s phenomenon is evidenced by areas of your body that start to feel cool and numb in the face of cold temperatures or emotional stress. Your fingers and the tip of your nose and your ears are the parts of your body that are most often affected by Raynaud‘s phenomenon.
What are Raynaud’s phenomenon Attacks
Raynaud’s phenomenon is a condition that is marked by episodes or attacks. When an episode of Raynaud’s phenomenon takes place, your arteries begin to constrict (narrow). This leads to your skin changing from its usual color to blue. This takes place as a result of not enough oxygen-rich blood reaching the affected parts of your body. Your blood does not flow to your skin’s surface the way that it ought to when you have an episode of Raynaud‘s phenomenon.
When an attack of Raynaud’s phenomenon is over, your skin turns red because of the blood rushing back through your arteries. An episode of Raynaud’s phenomenon may go on anywhere from several minutes to an hour or more.
Your skin will begin to tingle or throb as it starts to warm up again when an episode of Raynaud‘s phenomenon has ended. It may take as long as fifteen minutes for your blood flow to return to being normal.
Raynaud’s phenomenon was first described by the French doctor, Maurice Raynaud. He described this condition in 1862.
Raynaud’s phenomenon is referred to in other ways. It is also known as Raynaud’s syndrome or Raynaud’s disease.
Raynaud’s phenomenon takes place most of the time in people who live in colder climates. This condition also develops more frequently in women than it does in men.
Raynaud’s phenomenon is a secondary type of condition. What this means is that it results from an underlying problem of some kind.
There are several different things that can lead to Raynaud’s phenomenon. Some of these include:
- Rheumatoid arthritis (an inflammatory disorder that causes stiffness and pain in your joints)
- Lupus (an autoimmune disease that may affect several areas of your body)
- Scleroderma (a disease that causes scarring and hardening of your skin)
- Sjogren’s syndrome (an autoimmune disorder in which your glands that make saliva and tears are destroyed)
- Certain medications, such as beta blockers
- Carpal tunnel syndrome
- Chemical exposure to vinyl chloride
- Diseases of your arteries
- Thyroid gland disorders
- Repetitive trauma.
Possible Raynaud’s phenomenon Signs
The signs and symptoms that are produced by Raynaud’s phenomenon depend on the frequency, severity and duration of the blood vessel spasms that underlie this condition.
Signs and symptoms that you may experience are:
- Cold fingers and toes
- A sequence of color changes that occur in your skin, which are a response to cold temperatures or emotional stress
- A numb, prickly feeling or stinging pain as warmth comes back to your affected areas or stress is relieved.
Arteritis is a disorder that is characterized by inflammation in the walls of your arteries. Your arteries are the blood vessels that take oxygen-rich blood to the rest of your body from your heart. Inflammation in the walls of your arteries usually develops as a result of infection or a response by your auto-immune system. In this post we specifically cover temporal arteritis.
Temporal arteritis is a serious disorder that is marked by an inflammation of the lining of the arteries in your head. This is specifically referring to the arteries in your temples. These are the medium-sized arteries that provide blood for your eyes, head and optic nerves.
Temporal arteritis may also be characterized by double or blurred vision, headaches and jaw pain. Temporal arteritis may also lead to stroke and blindness.
Temporal arteritis takes place most of the time in people who are over the age of 50. The incidence of temporal arteritis increases as people grow older. In fact, about 20 out of every 100,000 people who are over the age of 50 are affected by temporal arteritis.
Women Get Temporal Arteritis More Than Men
Women are twice as likely to develop temporal arteritis as men are. Caucasians, especially those who are of Scandinavian ancestry, are also afflicted by temporal arteritis more than people of other races.
Temporal arteritis is caused by the inflammation of your arteries. However, whatever causes this to take place has not yet been determined. Researchers believe that this inflammation may result in part because of an incorrect response by your immune system.
Temporal arteritis may take place in association with or after polymyalgia rheumatica. The incidence of temporal arteritis has also been connected with severe infections and the use of high doses of antibiotics.
What are the signs that I might have temporal arteritis?
The primary signs and symptoms of temporal arteritis are tenderness and pain of your head, which are usually very severe. This usually takes place in both of your temples. However, the pain that you have may occur in the front of your head or in just one of your temples.
There are other signs and symptoms that are produced by temporal arteritis that may vary from person to person. Some of these possible signs and symptoms are:
- Tongue claudication (pain that occurs in your tongue when you are chewing)
- Pain and stiffness in your neck, hips or arms that is usually more severe in the morning before you get out of bed than it is at other times
- Weight loss that is unintentional
- Tenderness of your scalp that causes it to hurt when you lay your head on a pillow or when you comb your hair
- Excessive weakness, tiredness
- An excessive amount of sweating
- Ringing in your ears (acute tinnitus)
- Malaise (a general feeling of not being well)
- A throbbing headache on the back of your head or one side of your head
- The permanent loss of vision in one of your eyes that takes place suddenly
- Jaw claudication (pain that develops in your jaw when you are chewing)
- Muscle aches
- Joint pain and stiffness
- Double or blurred vision.
Mediterranean anemia is a genetic (hereditary) blood disease. What this means is that Mediterranean anemia is a disorder that you get because you inherit a mutated (defective) gene or genes from your parents; or, you are missing a gene or genes that you should have gotten.
Mediterranean anemia is characterized by your body making less healthy red blood cells and less hemoglobin than what your body needs. Hemoglobin is an iron-rich protein that is located in your red blood cells. Hemoglobin is the substance that causes your red blood cells to be able to carry oxygen to all of the parts of your body.
When your hemoglobin is not defective it is known as hemoglobin A. Normal hemoglobin is composed of four protein chains. Two of these chains are called alpha globin, and two of the chains are referred to as beta globin.
There are two main forms of Mediterranean anemia. They are alpha and beta Mediterranean anemia. Their names come from the defects that take place in these four protein chains.
Understanding the Necessary Genes for Protein Chains
There are four genes that you need to have in order for a sufficient number of alpha globin protein chains to be made. Alpha Mediterranean anemia develops when one or two of the four genes that you have to have are missing. Moderate to severe Mediterranean anemia occurs when more than two of the genes are not there.
There are two genes that you have to have in order to have a sufficient number of beta protein chains. You get one of these genes from each one of your parents. Beta Mediterranean anemia takes place when one or both of these genes are defective or missing.
Mediterranean anemia is known by other names. It is also referred to as thalassemia and Cooley’s anemia.
Both men and women develop Mediterranean anemia. The disease develops most of the time in people who are of Greek, Italian, Middle Eastern, Asian and African descent.
Fortunately, Mediterranean anemia is a rare disease. This means that it affects less than 200,000 people in the United States.
As stated above, Mediterranean anemia is an inherited disease. The only way for you to get this disease is to inherit one or more defective hemoglobin genes from your parents.
Because of the nature of Mediterranean anemia, there are two main risk factors that may increase your likelihood of having this disease. They are your family history and your ancestry.
Signs and Symptoms of Mediterranean Anemia
If you have a mild type of Mediterranean anemia, you may not have any signs or symptoms at all. When you do have signs and symptoms with this disease, they depend on the form and severity of Mediterranean anemia that you are afflicted with. Possible signs and symptoms that you may experience are:
- Slow growth
- Fatigue and/or weakness
- Shortness of breath
- A protruding abdomen
- Jaundice (a yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes)
- A pale appearance
- Deformities in your facial bones
- Dark urine
- Swelling of your liver and spleen.
- Sickle Cell Anemia and SSA Disability Benefits (disabilitybenefitshome.com)
Corticobasal ganglionic degeneration is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It is characterized by atrophy of several areas of the brain and nerve cell loss. This includes the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex.
The cortex (outer layer) of the brain is severely affected by corticobasal ganglionic degeneration. This is especially true in regard to the fronto-parietal areas of the brain. These regions of the brain are located near the center-top of the head.
However, deeper areas of the brain are also affected by corticobasal ganglionic degeneration. The basal ganglia is one of the affected regions. This is where the name “corticobasal” is derived from.
Corticobasal ganglionic degeneration is a disorder that usually advances slowly. The signs and symptoms that are produced by corticobasal ganglionic degeneration are usually the result of the combined loss of brain tissue in all of the regions of the brain that are affected.
Corticobasal ganglionic degeneration is similar in several ways to frontotemporal dementia. This is true clinically, genetically and pathologically.
Frontotemporal dementia is a broad, umbrella term for a diverse group of uncommon diseases that are a form of dementia. Frontotemporal dementia primarily involves the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain.
Dementia is a loss of brain function that is a characteristic of certain disorders. Dementia affects thinking, judgment, behavior and language.
Corticobasal ganglionic degeneration takes place most of the time when a person is between the ages of 45 and 70. Women are affected by this disorder more often than men are.
Corticobasal ganglionic degeneration is known by other names. It is also referred to as CBD, corticobasal degeneration and CBGD.
The cause of corticobasal ganglionic degeneration has not yet been discovered. At the current time, there is no strong evidence that corticobasal ganglionic degeneration is an inherited disorder. There are also no known risk factors that have been identified for corticobasal ganglionic degeneration, such as toxins or infections.
There have been studies done of brain tissue of people who have corticobasal ganglionic degeneration. These studies have revealed certain characteristic cell changes that involve a brain protein that is known as tau. These studies may be of use to researchers who are trying to find the cause or causes of corticobasal ganglionic degeneration.
Signs that you might have Corticobasal Ganglionic degeneration
The first signs and symptoms that are caused by corticobasal ganglionic degeneration usually take place on one side (unilateral). However, as this disorder progresses, the signs and symptoms usual start to involve both sides (bilateral). Some of the possible signs and symptoms are:
- Difficulty with maintaining balance
- Movements that are clumsy, shaky or slow
- The loss of movement control
- Poor coordination
- The loss of intellectual ability
- Speech that is hesitant and halting
- Difficulty with speech that is progressive
- Impairment of visual-spatial functions and skills
- Problems with comprehending language that are progressive
- Stiffness or rigidity
- Problems with walking
- Difficulty with short-term memory, such as misplacing objects or repeating questions
- Dysphagia (problems with swallowing)
- Difficulty with muscle control, such as problems controlling the muscles of the mouth and face.
- The Challenges of a Dementia Patient (nytimes.com)
Diabetes is a disease that millions and millions of people in the United States are afflicted with. In fact, there are estimates that around 20.8 million adults and children in the United States, or 7% of the world’s population, are affected by this disease. Of this number, 14.6 million people have already been diagnosed with diabetes. However, 6.2 million people (nearly one-third) are not even aware that they have this disease.
Diabetes is more than a single disease. Diabetes is really a group of related diseases in which your body is not able to regulate the amount of sugar (glucose) in your blood.
The glucose in your blood is what gives you the energy to perform the physical activities of your daily life. Insulin is one of several hormones that regulates the glucose level in your blood. People who are afflicted with diabetes, either cannot make enough insulin or cannot use the insulin that is produced by their body in the right way, or both.
Diabetic glomerulosclerosis is a disease that occurs in people who have diabetes. It is a disease that damages or hurts your kidneys.
Your kidneys are composed of hundreds of thousands of filtering units that are referred to as nephrons. Each one of these nephrons has a cluster of tiny blood vessels that are known as a glomerulus. Together, these structures work to filter waste from your blood.
The high level of blood sugar that is brought about by diabetes may result in damage to these structures by causing them to become scarred and thickened. With the passage of time, more and more blood vessels are destroyed. This, in turn, leads to leaking and albumin (protein) getting into your urine.
Diabetic glomerulosclerosis does not develop in every person who has diabetes. About 40 out of every 100 people with diabetes will go on to get this disease.
The reason why some people who are afflicted with diabetes acquire diabetic glomerulosclerosis and other people do not has not yet been discovered. However, there are some risk factors that may increase your likelihood of having diabetic glomerulosclerosis if you have diabetes. Some of these include:
- Being a smoker
- Having hypertension (high blood pressure)
- Having high blood cholesterol.
In addition, Native Americans, African Americans and Hispanics are at a higher risk for getting diabetic glomerulosclerosis.
Diabetic glomerulosclerosis does not cause any signs or symptoms in the early stages of the disease. Later on, as diabetic glomerulosclerosis progresses, you may experience things like:
- Weight gain that is unintentional that results from the build up of fluid
- Nausea and vomiting
- Generalized swelling of your body
- Generalized itching
- Excessive frothing or a foamy appearance of your urine
- Swelling that occurs in your feet and legs
- Hiccups that take place frequently
- A general feeling of sickness or not being well (malaise)
- Swelling that develops around your eyes that usually occurs in the morning
- A poor appetite
- Hypertension (high blood pressure)
- Proteinuria (protein in your urine)
- High blood cholesterol and triglycerides